*Required Readings

*Baldwin, James. Go Tell It on the Mountain (1953), selected essays

*Baraka, Amiri (LeRoi Jones). Dutchman & the Slave (1964), selected poems, selected essays

*Brooks, Gwendolyn. Maud Martha (1953), selected poems

*Brown, Sterling. Selected poems

*Chesnutt, Charles W. The Conjure Woman (1899), The Marrow of Tradition (1901)

*Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself (1845), The Heroic Slave (1853)

*Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk (1903)

*Dunbar, Paul Laurence. Selected poems

*Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man (1952), selected essays

*Equiano, Olaudah. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa (1789)

*Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun (1959)

*Harper, Frances E. W. Iola Leroy; Or, Shadows Uplifted (1892), selected poems

*Hayden, Robert. Selected poems

*Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea (1940), selected poems

*Hurston, Zora Neale. Mules and Men (1935), Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937)

*Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861)

*Johnson, James Weldon. The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (1912), God's Trombones (1927)

*Larsen, Nella. Quicksand (1928), Passing (1929)

*Lorde, Audre. Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1982), selected poems

*Marshall, Paule. Brown Girl, Brownstones (1959)

*Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye (1970), Beloved (1987)

*Murray, Albert. Trainwhistle Guitar (1974)

*Petry, Ann. The Street (1946)

*Reed, Ishmael. Flight to Canada (1976), selected poems

*Shange, Ntozake. for colored girls who have considered suicide /when the rainbow is enuf (1977)

*Toomer, Jean. Cane (1923)

*Walker, Alice. Meridian (1976)

*Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery (1901)

*Wheatley, Phillis. Selected poems

*Wright, Richard. Native Son (1940), Black Boy (1945)

For Further Reading

Fiction

Baldwin, James. Another Country (1962)

Bambara, Toni Cade. Gorilla, My Love (1972)

Baraka, Amiri (LeRoi Jones). The System of Dante's Hell (1965)

Bradley, David. The Chaneysville Incident (1981)

Brown, William Wells. Clotel; Or The President's Daughter (1853)

Butler, Octavia. Kindred (1979)

Delany, Martin R. Blake; Or the Huts of America (1859-61)

Demby, William. The Catacombs (1965)

Du Bois, W. E. B. The Quest of the Silver Fleece (1911)

Dunbar, Paul Laurence. The Sport of the Gods (1902)

Fauset, Jessie R. There Is Confusion (1924) or Plum Bun (1929)

Gaines, Ernest J. Of Love and Dust (1967), Bloodline (1968)

Griggs, Sutton E. Imperium in Imperio (1899)

Haley, Alex. Roots (1976)

Himes, Chester. If He Hollers Let Him Go (1945)

Hopkins, Pauline E. Contending Forces (1900)

Hughes, Langston. The Best of Simple (1931)

Hurston, Zora Neale. Jonah's Gourd Vine (1934)

Johnson, Charles. Oxherding Tale (1982), The Sorcerer's Apprentice: Tales and Conjurations (1986)

Jones, Gayl. Corregidora (1975)

Kelley, William Melvin. dem (1967), A Different Drummer (1937)

Lee, Andrea. Sarah Phillips (1984)

Marshall, Paule. Praisesong for the Widow (1983)

McKay, Claude. Home to Harlem (1928)

McPherson, James Alan. Hue and Cry (1969)

Morrison, Toni. Sula (1973)

Naylor, Gloria. The Women of Brewster Place (1982)

Polite, Carlene H. The Flagellants (1967)

Reed, Ishmael. Yellow Back Radio Broke-Down (1969)

Schuyler, George. Black No More (1931)

Shange, Ntozake. Sassafras, Cypress & Indigo (1982)

Thurman, Wallace. The Blacker the Berry (1929), Infants of the Spring (1932)

Walker, Alice. The Color Purple (1982)

Walker, Margaret. Jubilee (1966)

Williams, John A. The Man Who Cried I Am (1967)

Williams, Sherley Anne. Dessa Rose (1986)

Wilson, Harriet E. Our Nig; Or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black (1859)

Wright, Richard. Uncle Tom's Children (1938)

Poetry

Baraka, Amiri (LeRoi Jones). The Amiri Baraka / LeRoi Jones Reader (1991)

Brooks, Gwendolyn. Blacks (1987)

Cullen, Countee. On These I Stand (1947)

Dove, Rita. Thomas and Beulah (1986)

Dumas, Henry. Play Ebony, Play Ivory (1974)

Evans, Mari. I Am the Black Woman (1970)

Giovanni, Nikki. Black Feeling, Black Talk/Black Judgement (1970)

Harper, Frances E. W. Complete Poems (1988)

Harper, Michael. Images of Kin: New and Selected Poems (1977)

Henderson, ed., Stephen E. Understanding the New Black Poetry (1973)

Honey, ed., Maureen. Shadowed Dreams: Women's Poetry of the Harlem Renaissance (1989)

Hughes, Langston. Selected Poems (1959)

Knight, Etheridge. The Essential Etheridge Knight (1986)

Johnson, ed., James Weldon. The Book of American Negro Poetry (1922)

Jordan, June. Things That I Do in the Dark: Selected Poetry (1977)

Lorde, Audre. Chosen Poems, Old and New (1982)

Madhubuti, Haki [Don L. Lee]. Directionscore: Selected and New Poems (1971)

McKay, Claude. Selected Poems (1953)

Rodgers, Carolyn. How I Got Ovah: New and Selected Poems (1975)

Sanchez, Sonia. I've Been a Woman: New and Selected Poems (1978)

Tolson, Melvin. Harlem Gallery (1965)

Walker, Margaret. For My People (1942)

Wheatley, Phillis. Complete Works (1988)

Williams, Sherley Anne. Some One Sweet Angel Chile (1982)

Wright, Jay. Selected Poems (1987)

Autobiography

Andrews, ed., William. Sisters of the Spirit (1986)

Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings (1969)

Grimke, Charlotte Forten. The Journals of Charlotte Forten Grimke (1988)

Hurston, Zora Neale. Dust Tracks on a Road (1942)

Malcolm X and Alex Haley. The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965)

Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave (1853)

Wideman, John Edgar. Brothers and Keepers (1984)

Drama

Childress, Alice. Trouble in Mind (1955)

Elder, Lonne. Ceremonies in Dark Old Men (1969)

Fuller, Charles. A Soldier's Play (1982)

Gordone, Charles. No Place to be Somebody (1969)

Grimke, Angelina. Rachel (1920)

Hughes, Langston. Mulatto (1935)

Kennedy, Adrienne. Funnyhouse of a Negro (1964)

Wilson, August. Fences (1986), Joe Turner's Come and Gone (1988)

Oral Literature, Essays, Etc.

Baker, Jr., Houston A. The Journey Back: Issues in Black Literature and Criticism (1980), "Generational Shifts and the Recent Criticism of Afro-American Literature." Black American Literature Forum 15 (Spring 1981): 3-21

Baldwin, James. Notes of a Native Son (1955), Nobody Knows My Name (1961)

Baraka, Amiri (LeRoi Jones). The Amiri Baraka/LeRoi Jones Reader (1991)

Bell, Roseann P., Bettye J. Parker, Beverly Guy-Sheftall, eds. Sturdy Black Bridges: Visions of Black Women in Literature (1979)

Brown, Sterling. The Negro in American Fiction / Negro Poetry and Drama (1937)

Carby, Hazel. "On the Threshold of Woman's Era: Lynching, Empire, and Sexuality in Black Feminist Theory." In "Race," Writing, and Difference, ed. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. (1986)

Christian, Barbara. "The Race for Theory." Cultural Critique 6 (1987): 51-63. (Also in The Nature and Context of Minority Discourse, ed. Abdul JanMohamed and David Lloyd, 1990)

Cooper, Anna Julia. A Voice from the South (1892)

Cruse, Harold. The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (1967)

Douglass, Frederick. Selected Speeches

Ellison, Ralph. Shadow and Act (1964)

Fisher, Dexter and Robert B. Stepto, eds. Afro-American Literature: The Reconstruction of Instruction (1979)

Gates, Jr., Henry Louis. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism (1988)

Gayle, Jr., ed., Addison. The Black Aesthetic (1971)

Goss, Linda and Marian E. Barnes, eds. Talk That Talk: An Anthology of African-American Storytelling (1989)

Hughes, Langston. "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain." Nation 23 (June 1926): 692-94

Hull, Gloria T., Patricia Bell Scott, and Barbara Smith, eds. But Some of Us Are Brave: Black Women's Studies (1982)

Hurston, Zora Neale. "Characteristics of Negro Expression." In Negro: An Anthology, ed. Nancy Cunard (1934)

King, Jr., Martin Luther. Selected Speeches

Levine, Lawrence. Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (1977)

Locke, ed., Alain. The New Negro (1925)

Lorde, Audre. Sister Outsider (1984)

Schuyler, George S. "The Negro Art-Hokum." Nation 16 (June 1926): 662-63

Spiller, Hortense J. "Mama's Baby, Papa's Maybe: An American Grammar Book" Diacritics (Summer 1987): 65-81

Stepto, Robert. From Behind the Veil: A Study of Afro-American Narrative (1979)

Walker, Alice. In Search of Our Mothers' Gardens: Womanist Prose (1983)

Walker, David. David Walker's Appeal, in Four Articles (1829)

Wall, ed., Cheryl A. Changing Our Own Words: Essays on Criticism, Theory, and Writing by Black Women (1989)

Wright, Richard. "Blueprint for Negro Writing." New Challenge 2 (Fall 1937): 53-65 (Also in Richard Wright Reader, ed. Ellen Wright and Michel Fabre, 1978)

August, 1998