*Required Reading

*Apess, William. A Son of the Forest

*Bellamy, Edward. Looking Backward

*Brown, William Wells. Clotel

*Bryant, William Cullen. “Abraham Lincoln,” “Thanatopsis,” “The Yellow Violet,” “Inscription for the Entrance to a Wood,” "I Cannot Forget with what Fervid Devotion," “To a Waterfowl,” “The Burial-Place,” “A Fragment,” “Green River,” “A Winter Piece,” “The Rivulet,” “Summer Wind,” “Autumn Woods,” “After a Tempest,” “Sonnets: Midsummer, October, November,” “The Prairies,” “The Fountain,” “The Painted Cup,” “To the Fringed Gentian,” “To Cole, the Painter, Departing for Europe”

*Cable, George Washington. The Grandissimes

*Child, Lydia Maria. Hobomok, An Appeal in Favor of that Class of Americans Called Africans

*Clemens, Samuel [Mark Twain]. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

*Cooper, James Fenimore. The Pioneers or The Last of the Mohicans or Satanstoe

*Davis, Rebecca Harding. "Life in the Iron Mills"

*DeForest, William. Miss Ravenal’s Conversion from Secession to Loyalty

*Dickinson, Emily. selected poems

*Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, “The Heroic Slave,” “What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?”

*Emerson, Ralph Waldo. “Nature,” “The Rhodora,” “Each and All,” “Compensation,” “The Snow-Storm,”

“The Problem,” “Uriel,” “Hamatreya,” “Ode,” “Days,” “The Sphinx,” “Bacchus,” “Merlin,” “Brahma,” “Nature,” “The American Scholar,” “The Transcendentalist," "Self-Reliance," “Circles,” The Poet,” “Experience,” “Montaigne,” “1851 Address,” “Fate,” “Illusions”

*Wilkins, Mary. A New England Nun and Other Stories

*Fuller, Margaret. Summer on the Lakes, Woman in the Nineteenth Century

*Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter, The Blithedale Romance, “My Kinsman, Major Molineux,” “Young Goodman Brown,” “The Minister’s Black Veil,” “The Maypole of Marymount,” “The Birth-mark,” “The Artist,” “Egotism,” “Banquet,” “Rappaccini’s Daughter,” “Ethan Brand”

*Howells, William Dean. The Rise of Silas Lapham or A Modern Instance

*Irving, Washington. The Sketch Book

*Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl

*James, Henry. The American, The Portrait of a Lady

*Jewett, Sarah Orne. The Country of the Pointed Firs

*Lowell, James Russell. “Ode Recited at the Harvard Commemoration,” A Fable for Critics, selections from The Biglow Papers

*Melville, Herman. Moby-Dick, “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” “Benito Cereno,” “Billy Budd,” “The Paradise of Bachelors and The Tartarus of Maids,” “Battle-Pieces”

*Poe, Edgar Allan. "Al Aaraaf,” “Romance,” “Dreams,” “To Science,” “To Helen,” “Silence,” “The Raven,” “Ulalume,” “Poetic Principle,” “Ligeia," "The Fall of the House of Usher," "The Tell-Tale Heart," "William Wilson," "Maelstrom,” “The Purloined Letter,” "The Masque of the Red Death," "The Philosophy of Composition," Eureka

*Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom’s Cabin

*Thoreau, Henry David. Walden, "Walk to Wachusett," "Resistance to Civil Government [Civil Disobedience]," "A Plea for Captain John Brown," “Slavery in Massachusetts,” selected poems

*Walker, David. David Walker’s Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World

*Whittier, James Greenleaf. “The Hunters of Men,” “The Farewell,” “At Port Royal,” “Proem,” “Songs of Labor”, “Dedication,” “Song of Slaves in the Desert,” “Ichabod,” “The Haschish,” “Skipper Ireson's Ride,” “Snow-Bound,” “Among the Hills,” “Telling the Bees,” “My Playmate,” “What the Birds Said,” “My Triumph”

*Whitman, Walt Leaves of Grass (1855), “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry,” “Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking,” Drum-Taps, “When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd,” “Passage to India,” “Pioneers,” Democratic Vistas

For Further Reading


Abrahams, Roger ed., Afro-American Folktales

Alcott, Louisa May. Hospital Sketches, Moods, Work, Little Women

Alger, Horatio. Luck and Pluck, Ragged Dick

Beecher, Catharine. The American Woman's Home, Letters on the Difficulties of Religion

Beecher, Henry Ward. Norwood, Sermons of Henry Ward Beecher

Bontemps, Arna and Hughes, Langston eds., Book of American Negro Folklore

Brownson, Orestes. New Views of Christianity, Society, and the Church, Charles Elwood, or The Infidel, The Convert, or Leaves From My Experiences, Reviews in Miller, The Transcendentalist

Channing, William Ellery. "Unitarian Christianity," "The Moral Argument Against Calvinism," "Evidences of Revealed Religion," "Likeness to God," "The Honor Due to All Men," "Remarks on . . . Milton," "Remarks on . . . National Literature," "Self-Culture," Slavery

Chesnut, Mary Boykin Mary Chesnut's Civil War

Child, Lydia Maria. The Frugal Housewife, The History of the Condition of Women, The Mother's Book

Clemens, Samuel [Mark Twain]. The Innocents Abroad, Life on the Mississippi, A connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court

Cooper, James Fenimore. The Spy, The Last of the Mohicans, The Deerslayer, The Pathfinder, The Prairie

Craft, William and Ellen. Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom

Dana, Richard Henry Jr. Two Years before the Mast

Davis, Rebecca Harding. Margaret Howth, Waiting for the Verdict, John Andross

Delany, Martin. Blake; Or the Huts of America; The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States

Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom, sel. speeches and journalism

Eggleston, Edward. The Hoosier Schoolmaster

Everett, Edward. "On Models in Literature," "Phi Beta Kappa Oration"

Fiske, John. The Destiny of Man, Darwinism and Other Essays

Fitzhugh, George. Cannibals All

Foote, Julia A. J. A Brand Plucked From the Fire

Garnet, Henry Highland. "An Address to the Slaves of the United States of America"

Garrison, William Lloyd. Thoughts on African Colonization, sel. from The Liberator

George, Henry. Progress and Poverty

Gray, Thomas. "Confessions of Nat Turner"

Grimke, Sarah Moore. Letters on the Equality of the Sexes, and the Condition of Women

Hale, Sarah Josepha. Woman's Record, essays from Godey's Lady's Book, Northwood: A Tale of New England

Harper, Frances E. W. “The Two Offers,” sel. poetry

Harris, Joel Chandler. Uncle Remus: His Songs and Sayings

Harte, Bret. The Luck of Roaring Camp and Other Stories

Hentz, Caroline Lee. The Planter’s Northern Wife

Higginson, Thomas Wentworth Army Life in a Black Regiment, “Letter to a Young Contributor”

Hildreth, Richard. Archy Moore

Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, Elsie Venner, The Guardian Angel, Medical Essays, A Mortal Antipathy, The Poet at the Breakfast Table, Ralph Waldo Emerson

Howells, William Dean. A Hazard of New Fortunes, Criticism and Fiction

Irving, Washington. Knickerbocker's History of New York Bracebridge Hall, Tales of a Traveler, The Alhambra, sel. Columbus, sel. Astoria, sel. Tour of the Prairies, sel. Conquest of Granada

Jackson, Helen Hunt. Ramona

James, Henry. The Europeans, Hawthorne, "Daisy Miller," Washington Square, The Bostonians, The American Scene, The Art of Fiction, The Future of the Novel

James, William. "The Dilemma of Determinism," "The Will to Believe," Varieties of Religious Experience, Pragmatism

Johnson, James Weldon. Books of American Negro Spirituals

Keckley, Elizabeth. Behind the Scenes

Kemble, Frances. Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation, 1838-1839

Kennedy, John Pendleton Swallow Barn

Lincoln, Abraham. The "House Divided" Speech, The Cooper Union Speech, "Gettysburg Address," "Second Inaugural"

Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years a Slave

Parker, Theodore. "The Previous Question between Mr. Andrews Norton and His Alumni," "The Transient and the Permanent in Christianity," "Letter . . . Touching the Matter of Slavery," "A Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion," "A Sermon of Merchants," "Theodore Parker's Experience as a Minister"

Parkman, Francis. The Oregon Trail

Parton, Sara Willis [Fanny Fern]. Ruth Hall, Fern Leaves from Fanny's Portfolio

Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart [Ward]. The Gates Ajar, The Silent Partner, The Story of Avis, Doctor Zay

Phillips, Wendell. Speeches, Lectures, and Letters

Poe, Edgar Allan. The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym

Ridge, John Rollin [Yellow Bird]. Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta

Ripley, George. sel. reviews, in Miller, The Transcendentalists, "The Latest Form of Infidelity Examined," "Letter to the Church in Purchase Street," Discourses on the Philosophy of Religion, "Jesus Christ the Same . . . ,"

Royce, Josiah. "The Problem of Job," The Religious Aspect of Philosophy, The Feud of Oakfield Creek

Sedgwick, Catherine Maria. Redwood, Hope Leslie, A New-England Tale, "The Rights of Women," Married or Single?

Seguin, Juan. Personal Memoirs

Simms, William Gilmor.e The Yemassee

Southworth,  E. [mma] D. [orothy] E. [liza] N. [evitte]. The Hidden Hand

Spofford, Harriet Prescott. The Amber Gods and Other Stories

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady. "Address to the N.Y. State Legislature," The Woman's Bible, Eighty Years and More

Stowe, Harriet Beecher. The Minister’s Wooing

Tecumseh. "We All Belong to One Family"

Tougee, Albion. A Fool's Errand, Bricks without Straw

Veblen, Thorstein. Theory of the Leisure Class

Warner, Susan. The Wide, Wide World

Weld, Angelina Grimke Weld, Appeal to the Christian Women of the South, Letters to Catharine Beecher

Weld, Theodore. American Slavery as it Is

Wilson, Harriet. Our Nig; or, Sketches from the Life of a Free Black

Winnemucca, Sarah (Thocmetony). Life Among the Piutes

Woolson, Constance Fenimore. Selected Shorter Writings (Rutgers)


Barlow, Joel. The Columbiad

Howe, Julia Ward. “My Last Dance,” “The Battle Hymn of the Republic”

Lanier, Sidney. “Hymns of the Marshes,” “Clover,” “Song of the Chattahoochee,” “From the Flats,” “The Mocking Bird,” “To Richard Wagner,” “A Ballad of Trees and the Master,” “The Raven Days,” “The Dying Words of Stonewall Jackson”

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth. Evangeline, Poems on Slavery, sel. poems

Very, Jones. “In Him We Live,” “The Morning Watch,” “The Song,” “The Latter Rain,” “The Dead,” “Thy Brother's Blood,” “The Earth,” “Yourself,” “Autumn Leaves,” “The Hand and Foot,” “The Eye and Ear,” “The New World,” “The Lost,” “The Created,” “The Prayer,” “The Cottage,” “The Wild Rose of Plymouth,” “Autumn Flowers,” “The Strangers”